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imuno ace sars cov 2

imuno ace sars cov 2

Summary

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The long incubation period of this new virus, which is mostly asymptomatic but contagious, is a major reason for its rapid spread around the world. Currently, there is no worldwide approved treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, there are joint efforts of the clinical and scientific communities to reduce the severe impact of the outbreak. Research on past emerging infectious diseases has built up valuable knowledge that is being used for drug reuse and rapid vaccine development. Nevertheless, to guide the design of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines suitable for mass vaccination, it is important to generate knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of infection and its effect on host immunity. Nanoscale delivery systems are expected to play a paramount role in the success of these prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and examines immune-mediated approaches currently explored for COVID-19 treatments, with an emphasis on nanotechnological tools.

Important

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has spread globally, already infecting millions of people. people around the world. As of 30 June 2020, 213 countries have reported COVID-19 cases, taking the total number to over 10.3 million, most notably the United States (2.6 million), Brazil (1.4 million), Russia (640 thousand). ), India (548 thousand) and UK (314 thousand). The highest number of deaths have occurred in the USA (126 thousand), followed by Brazil (58 thousand), UK (44 thousand) and Italy (35 thousand). The worldwide case fatality rate is 4.9% in all communities.

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imuno ace

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are non-segmented, positive-sense and single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) entrapped viruses. Their genome size ranges from 26 to 32 kb, making them the largest known RNA virus. The SARS-CoV-2 3′ terminus encodes structural proteins including the spike (S) glycoprotein, membrane (M) glycoprotein, as well as envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. In addition to genes encoding structural proteins, there are specific genomic regions encoding for viral proteins required for replication, such as papain-like protease (PlPro) and coronavirus core protease, in addition to other non-structural proteins.

It appears that the genetic polymorphism of ACE-2 is associated with an increased risk of specific co-morbidities—hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes (36, 37). The effect of allelic variants was reviewed in a computerized model and demonstrated that it is likely that some forms of ACE-2 would bind more strongly to the SARS-COV-2 spike protein (38). The current hypothesis of autoimmunity postulates that high levels of soluble ACE-2, or enhanced conformational binding to the spike protein, raises the possibility that the combined entity will be processed by the antigen-presenting cell as part of the virus. This can lead to the production of antibodies against ACE-2, which trigger type 2 and 3 hypersensitivity reactions,

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imuno ace 2

Although most infectious diseases target both ends of the age group due to either a poorly developed or impaired immune response, COVID-19 disproportionately affects the elderly. Soluble ACE-2 may explain the paradox of higher mortality in the elderly without a similar infant mortality rate. Elevated levels of soluble ACE-2 have been noted in concomitant diseases associated with high mortality in COVID-19 (39). There are no detectable levels in the serum of healthy individuals (40) and a relationship exists between the incidence of soluble ACE-2 and a person’s age (41). Recent research has indicated that soluble ACE-2 is the most important risk factor for cardiometabolic mortality and may be relevant in COVID-19.

 

approvals

We would like to express our gratitude to Els Koning for valuable help in the graphical design of the figures, and Martin Bourgonje for critically proofreading the manuscript. In addition, we would like to thank Dr Jan von der Thusen (Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands) and Dr Hua Su (Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Wuhan, PR China) for kindly providing us with histological analysis. Images.

 

 

SARS CoV-2 PCR kit

PCR-H731-48R 48T
EUR 823

SARS CoV-2 PCR kit

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SARS CoV E Protein

abx060650-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

SARS CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060652-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1873
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SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060653-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692
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SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060654-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

SARS-CoV Spike Protein

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  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Anti-CoV-2 & SARS-CoV S1 Antibody (Clone# CR3022)

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EUR 480

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen ELISA Kit

DEIA2020 96 tests
EUR 905
  • The LOD of this kit is 1 ng/mL of SARS-COV-2 nucleoprotein.
Description: SARS-CoV-2 Antigen ELISA Kit intended use is for quantitative detection of the recombinant SARS-COV-2 nucleoprotein antigen in human serum. The use of this kit for natural samples need to be validated by the end user due to the complexity of natural targets and unpredictable interference.

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-100R 100T
EUR 1311

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-150R 150T
EUR 1787

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-50R 50T
EUR 963

SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA Kit

E4901-100 100 assays
EUR 753

Recombinant Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (SARS-CoV-2)

P1523-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (SARS-CoV-2)

P1523-50 50 µg
EUR 551

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) PCR Detection Kit

K1460 100 Rxns
EUR 570
  • The kit includes: Non-Template Negative Control (NTC), COVID-19 Positive control (PTC), PCR Primer/ Probe set, 2X qPCR Master Mix, Rehydration Buffer and Reverse Transcription Mix
Description: Kit for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens using Real-Time (RT-PCR).

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (Clone# 6F10)

A2060-50 50 µg
EUR 480

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Antibody

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EUR 419

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) PCR Detection Kit

K1460-100 100 Rxns Ask for price

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

Oneq-H731-100R 100T
EUR 1610

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

Oneq-H731-150R 150T
EUR 2205

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

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EUR 1175

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test Kit

CoV2Ag-25 25 Tests/Kit
EUR 100

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1537-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1537-50 50 µg
EUR 530

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1539-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1539-50 50 µg
EUR 530

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 3C-like Proteinase

P1550-10 10 μg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 3C-like Proteinase

P1550-50 50 μg
EUR 551

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