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imuno ace sars cov 2

imuno ace sars cov 2

Summary

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The long incubation period of this new virus, which is mostly asymptomatic but contagious, is a major reason for its rapid spread around the world. Currently, there is no worldwide approved treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, there are joint efforts of the clinical and scientific communities to reduce the severe impact of the outbreak. Research on past emerging infectious diseases has built up valuable knowledge that is being used for drug reuse and rapid vaccine development. Nevertheless, to guide the design of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines suitable for mass vaccination, it is important to generate knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of infection and its effect on host immunity. Nanoscale delivery systems are expected to play a paramount role in the success of these prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and examines immune-mediated approaches currently explored for COVID-19 treatments, with an emphasis on nanotechnological tools.

Important

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it has spread globally, already infecting millions of people. people around the world. As of 30 June 2020, 213 countries have reported COVID-19 cases, taking the total number to over 10.3 million, most notably the United States (2.6 million), Brazil (1.4 million), Russia (640 thousand). ), India (548 thousand) and UK (314 thousand). The highest number of deaths have occurred in the USA (126 thousand), followed by Brazil (58 thousand), UK (44 thousand) and Italy (35 thousand). The worldwide case fatality rate is 4.9% in all communities.

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imuno ace

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are non-segmented, positive-sense and single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) entrapped viruses. Their genome size ranges from 26 to 32 kb, making them the largest known RNA virus. The SARS-CoV-2 3′ terminus encodes structural proteins including the spike (S) glycoprotein, membrane (M) glycoprotein, as well as envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. In addition to genes encoding structural proteins, there are specific genomic regions encoding for viral proteins required for replication, such as papain-like protease (PlPro) and coronavirus core protease, in addition to other non-structural proteins.

It appears that the genetic polymorphism of ACE-2 is associated with an increased risk of specific co-morbidities—hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes (36, 37). The effect of allelic variants was reviewed in a computerized model and demonstrated that it is likely that some forms of ACE-2 would bind more strongly to the SARS-COV-2 spike protein (38). The current hypothesis of autoimmunity postulates that high levels of soluble ACE-2, or enhanced conformational binding to the spike protein, raises the possibility that the combined entity will be processed by the antigen-presenting cell as part of the virus. This can lead to the production of antibodies against ACE-2, which trigger type 2 and 3 hypersensitivity reactions,

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imuno ace 2

Although most infectious diseases target both ends of the age group due to either a poorly developed or impaired immune response, COVID-19 disproportionately affects the elderly. Soluble ACE-2 may explain the paradox of higher mortality in the elderly without a similar infant mortality rate. Elevated levels of soluble ACE-2 have been noted in concomitant diseases associated with high mortality in COVID-19 (39). There are no detectable levels in the serum of healthy individuals (40) and a relationship exists between the incidence of soluble ACE-2 and a person’s age (41). Recent research has indicated that soluble ACE-2 is the most important risk factor for cardiometabolic mortality and may be relevant in COVID-19.

 

approvals

We would like to express our gratitude to Els Koning for valuable help in the graphical design of the figures, and Martin Bourgonje for critically proofreading the manuscript. In addition, we would like to thank Dr Jan von der Thusen (Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands) and Dr Hua Su (Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Wuhan, PR China) for kindly providing us with histological analysis. Images.

 

 

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody

A2061-50 50 µg
EUR 480

SARS CoV E Protein

abx060650-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692

SARS CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060652-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1873

SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060653-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692

SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein

abx060654-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692

SARS-CoV Spike Protein

abx060655-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1692

Anti-CoV-2 & SARS-CoV S1 Antibody (Clone# CR3022)

A2103-200 200 µg
EUR 480

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-100R 100T
EUR 1311

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-150R 150T
EUR 1787

SARS CoV-2 RT PCR kit

RTq-H731-50R 50T
EUR 963

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen ELISA Kit

DEIA2020 96 tests
EUR 905
Description: SARS-CoV-2 Antigen ELISA Kit intended use is for quantitative detection of the recombinant SARS-COV-2 nucleoprotein antigen in human serum. The use of this kit for natural samples need to be validated by the end user due to the complexity of natural targets and unpredictable interference.

SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA Kit

E4901-100 100 assays
EUR 753

Recombinant Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (SARS-CoV-2)

P1523-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (SARS-CoV-2)

P1523-50 50 µg
EUR 551

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

Oneq-H731-100R 100T
EUR 1610

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

Oneq-H731-150R 150T
EUR 2205

SARS CoV-2 One-Step PCR kit

Oneq-H731-50R 50T
EUR 1175

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (Clone# 6F10)

A2060-50 50 µg
EUR 480

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Antibody

A3000-50 50 µg
EUR 419

SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test Nasal

9901-NCOV-03G 25 Tests/Kit
EUR 94
Description: The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test is a lateral fl ow rapid chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of nucleocapsid antigen to SARS-CoV-2 present in human nasal samples. This test is intended for use as an aid in detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals suspected of COVID-19 with clinical symptoms onset within 5 days. Results are for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen. Antigen is generally detectable in human nasal swab samples during the acute phase of infection. Positive results indicate the presence of viral antigens, but clinical correlation with patient history and other diagnostic information is necessary to determine infection status. Positive results do not rule out bacterial infection or co- infection with other viruses. The agent detected may not be the definite cause of disease. Negative results should be treated as presumptive, and do not rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection and should not be used as the sole basis for treatment or patient management decisions, including infection control decisions. Negative results should be considered in the context of a patient’s recent exposures, history and the presence of clinical signs and symptoms consistent with COVID-19, and confirmed with a molecular assay, if necessary, for patient management. The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test is intended for use in laboratory or POC settings by healthcare professionals, or self-collection under the supervision of a healthcare worke

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) PCR Detection Kit

K1460 100 Rxns
EUR 570
Description: Kit for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens using Real-Time (RT-PCR).

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) PCR Detection Kit

K1460-100 100 Rxns
EUR 551

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1537-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1537-50 50 µg
EUR 530

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1539-10 10 µg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (1-430)

P1539-50 50 µg
EUR 530

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 3C-like Proteinase

P1550-10 10 μg
EUR 156

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 3C-like Proteinase

P1550-50 50 μg
EUR 551

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Papain-like Protease

P1551-10 10 μg
EUR 156

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